Ein Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) ist eine Spezialeinheit der Polizei in Deutschland. Die Polizei jedes Bundeslandes verfügt über mindestens ein SEK. Danowski, Patrick; Pfeifer, Barbara: Wikipedia und Normdateien: Wege der Vernetzung am Beispiel der Sek II), in: Praxis Geschichte (), H. 4, S. 16– Deutsche Dogge Die D. D. ist eine von der FCI (Nr. , Gr. 2, Sek. ) anerkannte dt. Hunderasse. Sie wurde von Otto von Bismarck zum „Reichshund" erklärt.
Initially the reproduction was a replicating process that consists in producing new individuals that contain the same genetic information as the original or parent individual.
This mode of reproduction is called asexual , and it is still used by many species, particularly unicellular, but it is also very common in multicellular organisms, including many of those with sexual reproduction.
As sexual reproduction developed by way of a long process of evolution, intermediates exist. Bacteria, for instance, reproduce asexually, but undergo a process by which a part of the genetic material of an individual donor is transferred to another recipient.
Disregarding intermediates, the basic distinction between asexual and sexual reproduction is the way in which the genetic material is processed.
Typically, prior to an asexual division, a cell duplicates its genetic information content, and then divides.
This process of cell division is called mitosis. In sexual reproduction, there are special kinds of cells that divide without prior duplication of its genetic material, in a process named meiosis.
The resulting cells are called gametes , and contain only half the genetic material of the parent cells.
These gametes are the cells that are prepared for the sexual reproduction of the organism. In complex organisms, the sex organs are the parts that are involved in the production and exchange of gametes in sexual reproduction.
Many species, both plants and animals, have sexual specialization, and their populations are divided into male and female individuals. Conversely, there are also species in which there is no sexual specialization, and the same individuals both contain masculine and feminine reproductive organs, and they are called hermaphrodites.
This is very frequent in plants. Sexual reproduction first probably evolved about a billion years ago within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes.
Some of the many plausible theories include: Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes , organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria.
In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes e. Some bacteria use conjugation to transfer genetic material between cells; while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits.
The defining characteristic of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization.
Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, no third gamete type is known in multicellular plants or animals.
While the evolution of sex dates to the prokaryote or early eukaryote stage,  the origin of chromosomal sex determination may have been fairly early in eukaryotes see evolution of anisogamy.
The ZW sex-determination system is shared by birds, some fish and some crustaceans. XY sex determination is used by most mammals,  but also some insects,  and plants Silene latifolia.
No genes are shared between the avian ZW and mammal XY chromosomes,  and from a comparison between chicken and human, the Z chromosome appeared similar to the autosomal chromosome 9 in human, rather than X or Y, suggesting that the ZW and XY sex-determination systems do not share an origin, but that the sex chromosomes are derived from autosomal chromosomes of the common ancestor of birds and mammals.
A paper from compared the chicken Z chromosome with platypus X chromosomes and suggested that the two systems are related. Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes is a process whereby organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents.
Chromosomes are passed on from one generation to the next in this process. Each cell in the offspring has half the chromosomes of the mother and half of the father.
This double-chromosome stage is called " diploid ", while the single-chromosome stage is " haploid ". Diploid organisms can, in turn, form haploid cells gametes that randomly contain one of each of the chromosome pairs, via meiosis.
Crossing over and fertilization the recombining of single sets of chromosomes to make a new diploid result in the new organism containing a different set of genetic traits from either parent.
In many organisms, the haploid stage has been reduced to just gametes specialized to recombine and form a new diploid organism; in others, such as cryptogamic plants the gametes are capable of undergoing cell division to produce multicellular haploid organisms.
In either case, gametes may be externally similar, particularly in size isogamy , or may have evolved an asymmetry such that the gametes are different in size and other aspects anisogamy.
An individual that produces exclusively large gametes is female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes is male.
Most sexually reproducing animals spend their lives as diploid, with the haploid stage reduced to single-cell gametes. These gametes combine to form embryos which develop into a new organism.
The male gamete, a spermatozoon produced in vertebrates within the testes , is a small cell containing a single long flagellum which propels it. They are specialized for motility, seeking out an egg cell and fusing with it in a process called fertilization.
Female gametes are egg cells produced in vertebrates within the ovaries , large immobile cells that contain the nutrients and cellular components necessary for a developing embryo.
In mammals, the fertilized embryo instead develops within the female, receiving nutrition directly from its mother. Animals are usually mobile and seek out a partner of the opposite sex for mating.
Animals which live in the water can mate using external fertilization , where the eggs and sperm are released into and combine within the surrounding water.
In most birds, both excretion and reproduction is done through a single posterior opening, called the cloaca —male and female birds touch cloaca to transfer sperm, a process called "cloacal kissing".
In humans and other mammals this male organ is the penis , which enters the female reproductive tract called the vagina to achieve insemination —a process called sexual intercourse.
The penis contains a tube through which semen a fluid containing sperm travels. In female mammals the vagina connects with the uterus , an organ which directly supports the development of a fertilized embryo within a process called gestation.
Because of their motility, animal sexual behavior can involve coercive sex. Traumatic insemination , for example, is used by some insect species to inseminate females through a wound in the abdominal cavity—a process detrimental to the female's health.
Like animals, plants have developed specialized male and female gametes. The female gametes of seed plants are contained within ovules ; once fertilized by pollen these form seeds which, like eggs, contain the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryonic plant.
Many plants have flowers and these are the sexual organs of those plants. Flowers are usually hermaphroditic, producing both male and female gametes.
The female parts, in the center of a flower, are the pistils , each unit consisting of a carpel , a style and a stigma.
One or more of these reproductive units may be merged to form a single compound pistil. Within the carpels are ovules which develop into seeds after fertilization.
The male parts of the flower are the stamens: When a pollen grain lands upon the stigma on top of a carpel's style, it germinates to produce a pollen tube that grows down through the tissues of the style into the carpel, where it delivers male gamete nuclei to fertilize an ovule that eventually develops into a seed.
In pines and other conifers the sex organs are conifer cones and have male and female forms. The more familiar female cones are typically more durable, containing ovules within them.
Male cones are smaller and produce pollen which is transported by wind to land in female cones. As with flowers, seeds form within the female cone after pollination.
Because plants are immobile, they depend upon passive methods for transporting pollen grains to other plants.
Many plants, including conifers and grasses, produce lightweight pollen which is carried by wind to neighboring plants. Other plants have heavier, sticky pollen that is specialized for transportation by insects.
The plants attract these insects or larger animals such as humming birds and bats with nectar-containing flowers. These animals transport the pollen as they move to other flowers, which also contain female reproductive organs, resulting in pollination.
Most fungi reproduce sexually, having both a haploid and diploid stage in their life cycles. These fungi are typically isogamous , lacking male and female specialization: In some of these cases, the fusion is asymmetric, and the cell which donates only a nucleus and not accompanying cellular material could arguably be considered "male".
Some fungi, including baker's yeast , have mating types that create a duality similar to male and female roles. Yeast with the same mating type will not fuse with each other to form diploid cells, only with yeast carrying the other mating type.
Many species of higher fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction. Within the mushroom diploid cells are formed, later dividing into haploid spores.
The height of the mushroom aids the dispersal of these sexually produced offspring. The most basic sexual system is one in which all organisms are hermaphrodites , producing both male and female gametes— [ citation needed ] this is true of some animals e.
The biological cause for an organism developing into one sex or the other is called sex determination. In the majority of species with sex specialization, organisms are either male producing only male gametes or female producing only female gametes.
Exceptions are common—for example, the roundworm C. Sometimes an organism's development is intermediate between male and female, a condition called intersex.
Sometimes intersex individuals are called "hermaphrodite"; but, unlike biological hermaphrodites, intersex individuals are unusual cases and are not typically fertile in both male and female aspects.
In genetic sex-determination systems, an organism's sex is determined by the genome it inherits. Genetic sex-determination usually depends on asymmetrically inherited sex chromosomes which carry genetic features that influence development ; sex may be determined either by the presence of a sex chromosome or by how many the organism has.
Genetic sex-determination, because it is determined by chromosome assortment, usually results in a 1: Humans and other mammals have an XY sex-determination system: The "default sex," in the absence of a Y chromosome, is female-like.
Thus, XX mammals are female and XY are male. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: XY sex determination is found in other organisms, including the common fruit fly and some plants.
In birds, which have a ZW sex-determination system , the opposite is true: The majority of butterflies and moths also have a ZW sex-determination system.
In both XY and ZW sex determination systems, the sex chromosome carrying the critical factors is often significantly smaller, carrying little more than the genes necessary for triggering the development of a given sex.
Many insects use a sex determination system based on the number of sex chromosomes. This is called X0 sex-determination —the 0 indicates the absence of the sex chromosome.
All other chromosomes in these organisms are diploid, but organisms may inherit one or two X chromosomes. In field crickets , for example, insects with a single X chromosome develop as male, while those with two develop as female.
Other insects, including honey bees and ants , use a haplodiploid sex-determination system. This sex-determination system results in highly biased sex ratios , as the sex of offspring is determined by fertilization rather than the assortment of chromosomes during meiosis.
For many species, sex is not determined by inherited traits, but instead by environmental factors experienced during development or later in life.
Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination: Many fish change sex over the course of their lifespan, a phenomenon called sequential hermaphroditism.
Since the Swedish banking rescue , a managed float regimen has been upheld. The weakest the krona has been relative to the euro was 6 March when one euro bought The strongest the krona has been relative to the euro was on 13 August when one euro bought 8.
The weakness in the euro was due to the crisis in Greece which began in July and fear of further spreading to Italy and Spain.
The average exchange rate since the beginning of when the euro banknote and coins were issued and 1 March was 9. According to the accession treaty , Sweden is required to join the eurozone and therefore must convert to the euro once the convergence criteria are met.
By simply not joining the exchange rate mechanism, the Swedish government is provided a formal loophole avoiding the theoretical requirement of adopting the euro.
Some of Sweden's major parties continue to believe it would be in the national interest to join, but all parties have pledged to abide by the results of the referendum, [ needs update ] and none have shown any interest in raising the issue again.
There was an agreement among the parties not to discuss the issue before the general election. In a poll from May , In February , Fredrik Reinfeldt , the Prime Minister of Sweden stated that a new referendum on the euro issue will not be held until support is gained from the people and all the major parties.
Therefore, the timing is now at the discretion of the Social Democrats. He added, the request of Mona Sahlin , former leader of the Social Democratic Party, for deferral of a new referendum until after the mandate period should be respected.
As of [update] , support for Swedish membership of the euro among the general population is low. Sweden is a wealthy country and in the s and s the value of banknotes and coins per capita was one of the highest in the world.
In , the largest banknote worth 10,kr that was in circulation since was declared invalid and no longer was legal tender. For a discussion of the financial and banking crisis that hit Sweden in the early s see the article History of Sweden —present and Swedish banking rescue.
Unlike the USA and Canada which by policy never declare issued money invalid, Sweden and most other European countries have a date when older series of banknotes or older coin designs are invalid and are no longer legal tender.
From the years to banknotes and coins were circulated at a near constant level of around 12, krona per capita, but in a modified 1,krona banknote with a motion security strip was produced.
Within seven years the banknotes without the strip were declared invalid, leaving only a radically reduced number of banknotes with foil valid.
The Vasa 1,krona banknote without the foil strip became invalid after 31 December , and the pieces with the foil strip are invalid after 30 June Also the Swish mobile payment system was established in Sweden in and become a popular alternative to cash payments.
Although many countries are performing larger and larger share of transactions by electronic means, Sweden is unique in that it is also reducing its cash in circulation.
In upcoming years Sweden may be surpassed by Mexico, and Turkey. The circulation levels in the table above were reported to the Bank for International Settlements.
Possible discrepancies with these statistics and other sources may be because some sources exclude "commemorative banknotes and coins" 3. Circulation levels of cash on a per capita basis, are reduced by The Riksbanken predicted that between and , the amount of cash in circulation will decline by 20 to 50 percent.
Speculation about Sweden declaring all banknotes and coins invalid at some future date is widespread in the media with Björn Ulvaeus as a celebrity advocate of a cashless Sweden which he believes will result in a safer society because simple robbery will involve stealing goods that must be fenced.
The Riksbank deposit rate the deposit rate is the rate of interest banks receive when they deposit funds in their accounts at the Riksbank overnight and is normally 0.
The deposit rate went negative on July 9, and is forecast to remain negative through the fourth quarter of The suspicion became widespread that the huge reduction in circulation levels of the highest denomination banknote is related to monetary policy.
Traditional economic theory holds that people will convert bank accounts into cash without the inducement of earning interest.
Cecilia Skingsley has stated that "This is a development steered by market forces and not by the authorities.
The Riksbank will continue issuing banknotes and coins as long as there is demand for them in society. It is our statutory duty and we will of course live up to it.
The value of the payments between households, companies and authorities in Sweden amounts to about 20, kronor annual per capita in cash.
In shops, almost one in seven payments is made in cash. More than half of the adult population has the Swish payment app.
Annual withdrawals from Swedish ATMs in amount to 15, kronor per capita. According to Skingsley, "what some consumers, smaller companies and local clubs often see as a problem, is not so much getting hold of cash, but being able to deposit it in a bank account.
To see how circulation of the Swedish krona ranks compared to other currencies see Bank for International Settlements Red Books.
The e-krona is a proposed electronic currency to be issued directly by the Riksbank. It is different than the electronic transfers using commercial bank money as central bank money has no nominal credit risk, as it stands for a claim on the central bank, which cannot go bankrupt.
The declining use of cash in Sweden is going to be reinforced cyclically. As more and more businesses find they can have a functional business without accepting cash, the number of businesses refusing to accept cash will increase.
That will re-enforce the need for more and more citizens to get the Swish app which is already used by half the population. Cash machines, which are controlled by a Swedish bank consortium, are being dismantled by the hundreds, especially in rural areas.
The Riksbank has not taken a decision on issuing e-krona. First, the Riksbank needs to investigate a number of technical, legal and practical issues.
Although it may appear simple at first glance to issue e-krona, this is something entirely new for a central bank and there is no precedent to follow".
If the Riksbank chooses to issue e-krona, it is not to replace cash, but to act as a complement to it. It is our statutory duty and we will of course continue to live up to it," concluded Deputy Governor Cecilia Skingsley.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Swedish monarchy, see Monarchy of Sweden. Sweden and the euro. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 6 June Bank for International Settlements.
Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 12 December Svenska Dagbladet in Swedish.
Archived from the original on 19 May English Language Article noting the removal of the öre. Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original on 3 March Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 19 July Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 9 May Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 6 May Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 20 January Birgit Nilssons skamlösa judekoppling visar antisemitismen".
Dagens Nyheter in Swedish. Retrieved 22 January Sweden — a low inflation economy". Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 6 December Dags att slopa kronan".
Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 29 November Sweden is developing the world's first cashless economy".
Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 20 April The New York Times.
wikipedia sek -Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Dabei entfielen mit mehr als Millionen Noten etwa 32 Prozent auf die Stückelung zu Kronen, die somit am häufigsten anzutreffen war. Die Verwendung von Spezialeinheiten ist daher vom Bestreben nach hoher Präzision bei gleichzeitiger Kosten- und Risikenminimierung gekennzeichnet. In , the SEK was called in to intervene in Erfurt, Thuringia after a year old man barricaded himself in his apartment and acted violently towards emergency medical personnel. CS1 German-language sources de CS1 maint: Die Deutschen hätten keine Chance mehr gehabt und seien tot. Münzen sind derzeit folgende im Umlauf: Ist dagegen bereits im Vorfeld beim polizeilichen Gegenüber mit starker Bewaffnung, hohem Widerstand oder mit verschlossenen Türen in einer statischen Lage wie einer Wohnung zu rechnen, wird meist die Unterstützung durch ein mit einem besseren Eigenschutz ausgestattetes Spezialeinsatzkommandos SEK angefordert. Aufgrund der engen Anbindung an die militärischen Nachrichtendienste führen diese Einheiten auch Sondereinsätze Special Activities wie gezielte Tötungen  oder Entführungen von Einzelpersonen, zum Beispiel eines Diktators oder Kriegsverbrechers oder die verdeckte Aufklärung in einem feindlichen Land durch. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Anders als in gladbach bremen live stream meisten anderen Ländern entstand die GSG 9 nicht aus bestehenden militärischen Spezialtruppen, was historisch bedingt ist. When off-duty SEK officers are called to a crime scene, they may appear plain-clothed, only wearing their special protective gear Beste Spielothek in Oberbaumühle finden sek wikipedia their weapons. In vielen Nationen ist der so genannte Finale Rettungsschuss erlaubt, die gezielte Tötung eines Geiselnehmers oder drohenden Sprengstoffattentäters. Es Beste Spielothek in Wideck finden Stand nur noch 57 Milliarden Kronen im Umlauf. Jahrhundert bis rund Kriege dokumentiert, zählt man heute bereits jährlich über 50 militärische Konflikte weltweit, Tendenz steigend. Januar ungültig wurden. Dabei steht nicht so sehr die klassische nachrichtendienstliche Informationsgewinnung im Vordergrund, sondern eher die Weiterleitung von Informanten- und Agentenerkenntnissen und die Sondierung der Lage. In anderen Projekten Commons. Bordo und Anna J. Die folgende Grafik und Tabelle zeigen die historischen Wechselkurse:. Retrieved 19 July — via www. Zudem werden mittels psychologischer Tests unter anderem die geistige Leistungsfähigkeit, KonzentrationTeamfähigkeit und das Persönlichkeitsprofil der Bewerber ermittelt. SEK members do not always operate in uniform but do wear masks to protect their identities, as well as to protect their bodies from burns. Dabei entfielen mit mehr als Millionen Noten etwa 32 Prozent auf die Stückelung zu Kronen, die somit am häufigsten anzutreffen war. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 9. Wie andere Eliten in Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft auch haben sie mit denselben Problemen zu kämpfen, was Akzeptanz und Berechtigung hinsichtlich Aufgabe und Etat angeht. Die kupferfarbene Öre-Münze ist am Des Weiteren werde die Abgrenzung durch drei Faktoren erschwert: The requirements demand physical and mental strength, discernment and capacity for teamwork. Januar ungültig wurden. Die Krone schwedisch krona , Plural kronor ist die Währung Schwedens. Im Laufe der Zeit erwies sich das Währungssystem jedoch als mangelhaft. Retrieved 19 July
All applications made to join the SEK are made online. SEK members do not always operate in uniform but do wear masks to protect their identities, as well as to protect their bodies from burns.
When off-duty SEK officers are called to a crime scene, they may appear plain-clothed, only wearing their special protective gear and carrying their weapons.
The SEK Cologne has been accused of harassment while performing a initiation ritual on a new member. These plain-clothed units are specialized in surveillance, quick arrests and mobile hostage sieges or kidnappings are often used in investigations against organized crime or blackmailers.
However, the deployment of the MEK units is requested only for serious offenses. MEKs often, also, provide close protection for the state's senior leaders, including the state's minister president.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Was hinter dem Spezialeinsatzkommando steckt". Retrieved 19 July — via www. Archived from the original on Retrieved 19 July MAZ - Märkische Allgemeine.
SEK, Spezialeinsatzkommandos der deutschen Polizei. Retrieved March 28, Li agreed to return under the condition that Chiang surrender most of the gold and US dollars in his possession that belonged to the central government, and that Chiang stop overriding Li's authority.
After Yan communicated these demands and Chiang agreed to comply with them, Li departed for Guangdong. In Guangdong, Li attempted to create a new government composed of both Chiang supporters and those opposed to Chiang.
Li's first choice of premier was Chu Cheng, a veteran member of the Kuomintang who had been virtually driven into exile due to his strong opposition to Chiang.
By this time Yan was well known for his adaptability and Chiang welcomed his appointment. Conflict between Chiang and Li persisted.
Although he had agreed to do so as a prerequisite of Li's return, Chiang refused to surrender more than a fraction of the wealth that he had sent to Taiwan.
Without being backed by gold or foreign currency, the money issued by Li and Yan quickly declined in value until it became virtually worthless.
Although he did not hold a formal executive position in the government, Chiang continued to issue orders to the army, and many officers continued to obey Chiang rather than Li.
The inability of Li to coordinate KMT military forces led him to put into effect a plan of defense that he had contemplated in Instead of attempting to defend all of southern China, Li ordered what remained of the Nationalist armies to withdraw to Guangxi and Guangdong, hoping that he could concentrate all available defenses on this smaller, and more easily defensible, area.
The object of Li's strategy was to maintain a foothold on the Chinese mainland in the hope that the United States would eventually be compelled to enter the war in China on the Nationalist side.
Chiang opposed Li's plan of defense because it would have placed most of the troops still loyal to Chiang under the control of Li and Chiang's other opponents in the central government.
To overcome Chiang's intransigence Li began ousting Chiang's supporters within the central government. Yan Xishan continued in his attempts to work with both sides, creating the impression among Li's supporters that he was a "stooge" of Chiang, while those who supported Chiang began to bitterly resent Yan for his willingness to work with Li.
Because of the rivalry between Chiang and Li, Chiang refused to allow Nationalist troops loyal to him to aid in the defense of Kwangsi and Canton, with the result that Communist forces occupied Canton in October After Canton fell to the Communists, Chiang relocated the government to Chungking , while Li effectively surrendered his powers and flew to New York for treatment of his chronic duodenum illness at the Hospital of Columbia University.
Truman , and denounced Chiang as a dictator and an usurper. Li vowed that he would "return to crush" Chiang once he returned to China. Li remained in exile, and did not return to Taiwan.
Chiang Kai-shek, father and son, sang the Republic of China's national anthem while leaving the Academy all the way to the airfield.
Chiang Kai-shek would never return to the mainland. Chiang did not re-assume the presidency until 1 March Chiang relieved Li of the position as vice-president in the National Assembly on March Chiang moved the government to Taipei , Taiwan, where he resumed his duties as President of the Republic of China on 1 March He continued to claim sovereignty over all of China, including the territories held by his government and the People's Republic , as well as territory the latter ceded to foreign governments, such as Tuva and Outer Mongolia.
In the context of the Cold War , most of the Western world recognized this position and the ROC represented China in the United Nations and other international organizations until the s.
During his presidency on Taiwan, Chiang continued making preparations in order to take back mainland China. He developed the ROC army in order to prepare for an invasion of the mainland, and to defend Taiwan in case of an attack by the Communist forces.
It was not until the s that these troops were finally airlifted to Taiwan. Despite the democratic constitution, the government under Chiang was a one-party state , consisting almost completely of mainlanders ; the " Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion " greatly enhanced executive powers, and the goal of retaking mainland China allowed the KMT to maintain a monopoly on power and the prohibition of opposition parties.
The government's official line for these martial law provisions stemmed from the claim that emergency provisions were necessary, since the Communists and KMT were still in a state of war.
Seeking to promote Chinese nationalism , Chiang's government actively ignored and suppressed local cultural expression, even forbidding the use of local languages in mass media broadcasts or during class sessions.
The first decades after the Nationalists moved the seat of government to the province of Taiwan are associated with the organized effort to resist Communism known as the "White Terror" , during which about , Taiwanese were imprisoned for their real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.
Under Chiang, the government recognized limited civil and economic freedoms, property rights personal [ citation needed ] and intellectual and other liberties.
Despite these restrictions, free debate within the confines of the legislature was permitted. Under the pretext that new elections could not be held in Communist-occupied constituencies, the National Assembly, Legislative Yuan , and Control Yuan members held their posts indefinitely.
The Temporary Provisions also allowed Chiang to remain as president beyond the two-term limit in the Constitution. He was reelected by the National Assembly as president four times—doing so in , , , and Believing that corruption and a lack of morals were key reasons that the KMT lost mainland China to the Communists, Chiang attempted to purge corruption by dismissing members of the KMT accused of graft.
Some major figures in the previous mainland Chinese government, such as H. Soong , exiled themselves to the United States. Although politically authoritarian and, to some extent, dominated by government-owned industries, Chiang's new Taiwanese state also encouraged economic development, especially in the export sector.
A popular sweeping Land Reform Act, as well as American foreign aid during the s, laid the foundation for Taiwan's economic success, becoming one of the Four Asian Tigers.
After Chiang's death, the next president, Chiang's son, Chiang Ching-kuo , and Chiang Ching-kuo's successor, Lee Teng-hui a native Taiwanese, would, in the s and s, increase native Taiwanese representation in the government and loosen the many authoritarian controls of the early era of ROC control in Taiwan.
After meeting with the Japanese Prime Minister, Eisaku Sato , Whitlam observed that the reason Japan at that time was hesitant to withdraw recognition from the Nationalist government was "the presence of a treaty between the Japanese government and that of Chiang Kai-shek".
Sato explained that the continued recognition of Japan towards the Nationalist government was due largely to the personal relationship that various members of the Japanese government felt towards Chiang.
This relationship was rooted largely in the generous and lenient treatment of Japanese prisoners-of-war by the Nationalist government in the years immediately following the Japanese surrender in , and was felt especially strongly as a bond of personal obligation by the most senior members then in power.
Although Japan recognized the People's Republic in , shortly after Kakuei Tanaka succeeded Sato as Prime Minister of Japan, the memory of this relationship was strong enough to be reported by The New York Times 15 April as a significant factor inhibiting trade between Japan and the mainland.
There is speculation that a clash between Communist forces and a Japanese warship in was caused by Chinese anger after Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda attended Chiang's funeral.
Historically, Japanese attempts to normalize their relationship with the People's Republic were met with accusations of ingratitude in Taiwan.
Chiang was suspicious that covert operatives of the United States plotted a coup against him. In , Chiang Ching-kuo became director of the secret police Bureau of Investigation and Statistics , which he remained until Chiang was also suspicious of politicians who were overly friendly to the United States, and considered them his enemies.
In , seven days after surviving an assassination attempt, Wu Kuo-chen lost his position as governor of Taiwan Province to Chiang Ching-kuo.
After fleeing to United States the same year, he became a vocal critic of Chiang's family and government. He reorganized and Sovietized the political officer corps , and propagated Kuomintang ideology throughout the military.
In , 26 years after Chiang came to Taiwan, he died in Taipei at the age of He had suffered a heart attack and pneumonia in the foregoing months and died from renal failure aggravated with advanced cardiac malfunction on April 5.
A month of mourning was declared. In mainland China, however, Chiang's death was met with little apparent mourning and Communist state-run newspapers gave the brief headline "Chiang Kai-shek Has Died.
The hope was to have both buried at their birthplace in Fenghua if and when it was possible. Chiang's ultimate funeral ceremony became a political battle between the wishes of the state and the wishes of his family.
Yen's presidency was interim; Chiang Ching-kuo, who was the Premier , became President after Yen's term ended three years later.
Chiang's portrait hung over Tiananmen Square before Mao's portrait was set up in its place. Chiang was popular among many people and dressed in plain, simple clothes, unlike contemporary Chinese warlords who dressed extravagantly.
In the Philippines , a school was named in his honor in Today, Chiang Kai Shek College is the largest educational institution for the Chinoy community in the country.
The Kuomintang used traditional Chinese religious ceremonies, and promoted Martyrdom in Chinese culture. Kuomintang ideology promoted the view that the souls of Party martyrs who died fighting for the Kuomintang, the revolution, and the party founder Dr.
Sun Yat-sen were sent to heaven. Chiang Kai-shek believed that these martyrs witnessed events on earth from heaven. Sun's soul in heaven with a sacrificial ceremony at the Xiangshan Temple in Beijing in July Chiang Kai-shek considered both the Han Chinese and all the minority peoples of China, the Five Races Under One Union , as descendants of Yellow Emperor , the Yellow Emperor and semi mythical founder of the Chinese nation, and belonging to the Chinese Nation Zhonghua Minzu and he introduced this into Kuomintang ideology, which was propagated into the educational system of the Republic of China.
Chiang's legacy has been the target of heated debates because of the different views held about him. For some, Chiang was a national hero who led the victorious Northern Expedition against the Beiyang Warlords in , achieving Chinese unification , and who subsequently led China to ultimate victory against Japan in Some blamed him for not doing enough against the Japanese forces in the lead-up to, and during, the Second Sino-Japanese War , preferring to withhold his armies for the fight against the Communists, or merely waiting and hoping that the United States would get involved.
Some also see him as a champion of anti-Communism , being a key figure during the formative years of the World Anti-Communist League. During the Cold War , he was also seen as the leader who led Free China and the bulwark against a possible Communist invasion.
However, Chiang presided over purges, political authoritarianism, and graft during his tenure in mainland China, and ruled throughout a period of imposed martial law.
His governments were accused of being corrupt even before he even took power in He also allied with known criminals like Du Yuesheng for political and financial gains.
Some opponents charge that Chiang's efforts in developing Taiwan were mostly to make the island a strong base from which to one day return to mainland China, and that Chiang had little regard for the long-term prosperity and well-being of the Taiwanese people.
Today, Chiang's popularity in Taiwan is divided along political lines, enjoying greater support among Kuomintang KMT supporters.
He is generally unpopular among Democratic Progressive Party DPP voters and supporters who blame him for the thousands killed during the February 28 Incident and criticise his subsequent dictatorial rule.
In contrast, his image has been rehabilitated in contemporary Mainland China. Until recently portrayed as a villain who fought against the "liberation" of China by the Communists, since the s, he has been portrayed by the media in a neutral or slightly positive light as a Chinese nationalist who tried to bring about national unification and resisted the Japanese invasion during World War II.
His constant demands for Western support and funding also earned him the nickname of "General Cash-My-Check". In the West he has been criticized for his poor military skills.
He had a record of issuing unrealistic orders and persistently attempting to fight unwinnable battles, leading to the loss of his best troops.
In recent years, there has been an attempt to find a more moderate interpretation of Chiang. Chiang is now increasingly perceived as a man simply overwhelmed by the events in China, having to fight simultaneously Communists, Japanese, and provincial warlords while having to reconstruct and unify the country.
His sincere, albeit often unsuccessful attempts to build a more powerful nation have been noted by scholars such as Jonathan Fenby and Rana Mitter.
Mitter has observed that, ironically, today's China is closer to Chiang's vision than to Mao Zedong 's. He argues that the Communists, since the s, have essentially created the state envisioned by Chiang in the s.
Mitter concludes by writing that "one can imagine Chiang Kai-shek's ghost wandering round China today nodding in approval, while Mao's ghost follows behind him, moaning at the destruction of his vision".
If he had been a bit more trustworthy, if his character was somewhat better, the CCP would have been unable to beat him". Formosa Betrayed , one of the few American movies concerning the process of democratization in Taiwan, depicts Chiang Kai-shek as a brutal dictator, responsible for the execution of thousands of native Taiwanese during the days following the February 28 Incident.
In an arranged marriage , Chiang was married to a fellow villager named Mao Fumei. While married to Mao, Chiang adopted two concubines concubinage was still a common practice for well-to-do, non-Christian males in China: While he was still living in Shanghai, Chiang and Yao adopted a son, Wei-kuo.
Chen's autobiography refuted the idea that she was a concubine. Chiang and Mao had a son, Ching-kuo. According to the memoirs of Chen Jieru, Chiang's second wife, she contracted gonorrhea from Chiang soon after their marriage.
He told her that he acquired this disease after separating from his first wife and living with his concubine Yao Yecheng, as well as with many other women he consorted with.
His doctor explained to her that Chiang had sex with her before completing his treatment for the disease. As a result, both Chiang and Ch'en Chieh-ju believed they had become sterile, which would explain why he had only one child, by his first wife; however, a purported miscarriage by Soong Mei-ling in August would, if it actually occurred, cast serious doubt on whether this was true.
The Xikou Chikow Chiangs were descended from Chiang Shih-chieh who during the s 17th century moved there from Fenghua district, whose ancestors in turn came to southeastern China's Zhejiang Chekiang province after moving out of Northern China in the 13th century AD.
Chiang Kai-shek was born and raised as a Buddhist , but became a Methodist upon his marriage to his fourth wife, Soong Mei-ling , due to pressure from her mother.
Chiang developed relationships with other generals. Chiang became a sworn brother of the Chinese Muslim general Ma Fuxiang and appointed him to high ranking positions.
When Chiang became President of China after the Northern Expedition , he carved out Ningxia and Qinghai out of Gansu province, and appointed Muslim generals as military governors of all three provinces: The three Muslim governors, known as Xibei San Ma lit.
Chiang called on the three and their suboordinates to wage war against the Soviet peoples, Tibetans, Communists, and the Japanese. Chiang continued to appoint Muslims as governors of the three provinces, including Ma Lin and Ma Fushou.
Chiang's appointments, the first time that Muslims had been appointed as governors of Gansu, increased the prestige of Muslim officials in northwestern China.
All Muslim generals commissioned by Chiang in the National Revolutionary Army swore allegiance to him. During Chiang's rule, attacks on foreigners by Kuomintang forces flared up in several incidents.
One of these was the Battle of Kashgar where a Muslim army loyal to the Kuomintang massacred 4, Uyghurs, and killed several British at the British consulate in Kashgar.
The British were unable to retaliate. ROC flags were saluted by Muslims in Ningxia during prayer along with exhortations to nationalism during Chiang's rule.
Chiang sent Muslim students abroad to study at places like Al Azhar and Muslim schools throughout China taught loyalty to his regime.
The Yuehua, a Chinese Muslim publication, quoted the Quran and Hadith to justify submitting to Chiang Kai-shek as the leader of China, and as justification for Jihad in the war against Japan.
The Yihewani Ikhwan al Muslimun a. Muslim brotherhood was the predominant Muslim sect backed by the Chiang government during Chiang's regime.
Other Muslim sects, like the Xidaotang and Sufi brotherhoods like Jahriyya and Khuffiya were also supported by his regime. The Chinese Muslim Association, a pro-Kuomintang and anti-Communist organization, was set up by Muslims working in his regime.
Salafism attempted to gain a foothold in China during his regime, but the Yihewani and Hanafi Sunni Gedimu denounced the Salafis as radicals, engaged in fights against them, and declared them heretics, forcing the Salafis to form a separate sect.
His government donated money to build the Taipei Grand Mosque on Taiwan. Chiang had uneasy relations with the Tibetans.
Chiang ordered Ma Bufang to prepare his Islamic army to invade Tibet several times, to deter Tibetan independence , and threatened them with aerial bombardment.
Chiang incorporated Methodist values into the New Life Movement under the influence of his wife. Dancing and Western music were discouraged.
In one incident, several youths splashed acid on people wearing Western clothing, although Chiang was not directly responsible for these incidents.
Despite being a Methodist, he made reference to the Buddha in his diary, and encouraged the establishment of a Buddhist political party under Master Taixu.
According to Jehovah's Witnesses some of their members travelled to Chonqqing and spoke to him personally while distributing their literature there during the Second World War.
Chiang Kai-shek at the Baoding Military Academy in Chen Qimei , Chiang's Zhejiangese mentor, who introduced him to the Tongmenghui , but was assassinated at Yuan Shikai 's behest in Chiang with Sun's widow and her family in Chiang, leading the Northern Expedition in , on the cover of a issue of Time.
Chiang on the cover of Liangyou after the outbreak of the Battle of Shanghai. Chiang, American president Franklin D.
Chiang's May 20 inauguration speech as the first president of the Republic of China under the constitution. A rock carving at Kinmen in Chiang's hand , reading "Forget Not that You are in Ju ", intended as a commentary on the Chinese republic's position relative to mainland China, which alludes to Qi 's successful reconquest of its land despite having been forced into the single city of Ju by Yan during China's Warring States period.
Chiang with American president Dwight D. Eisenhower in June Chiang presiding over the Double Ten celebrations. Chiang's body was not buried in the traditional Chinese manner , but entombed at his former residence in Cihu out of respect for his wish to be buried in his native Fenghua.
The entrance to Chiang's tomb at Cihu reads "The Mausoleum of the President Lord Chiang", using Chiang's official posthumous name in traditional characters and orthography.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a Chinese name ; the family name is Chiang. Northern Expedition and Nationalist Government China.
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October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Timeline of Jiang Jieshi. Chiang and Li Zongren. Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China.
Retrieved June 28, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. China in War and Revolution, — The Early Chiang Kai-shek.
III , "Chiang Kai-shek", p. Chiang Ching-kuo and the revolutions in China and Taiwan. China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Madame Chiang Kai-shek and the birth of modern China.
Eastman, Westview Press, Boulder, , pp. Chiang Kai-shek and the struggle for modern China, Volume Moscow and Chinese Communists. Retrieved July 22, Chinese University of Hong Kong, January 22, and bassist Apirath "Rath" Sukkhajitr b.
September 20, , Sek recorded the tracks in a night in late and sent the demo tape to Asanee Chotikul of the popular Thai rock duo Asanee-Wasan.
Called Lo Society , the band's demo tape was released as an album in on Asanee's indie record label and distributed by GMM Grammy , Thailand's biggest record company.
Loso released eight more albums, each selling at least 1 million copies "platinum" status on the RIAA certification scale , and some selling 3 million copies.
Among the band's most popular songs is "Som Sarn" Thai: Another hit was Pantip , with its hook chorus , "ja mai pai Pantip" "will not go Pantip " or "I won't go to Pantip".
The song is about a man dating a woman and taking her shopping at World Trade Center , MBK Center and Siam Square , but he refuses to take her to Pantip Plaza because his ex-girlfriend has a shop there.
The band's line up remained stable except for a period where Apirath was replaced by Nattaphon "Klang" Suntharaanu.
Apirath Loso then returned to bass duties with the band until its demise. Just about all the band's albums are accompanied by the release of a karaoke VCD , featuring music videos of the songs.
Through the music videos and his appearance as pitchman for the M brand energy drink, Sek Loso, usually wearing sunglasses , has achieved cultural icon status in Thailand.
He even spoofed his celebrity image with a Sek lookalike making a cameo appearance in the Thai action film , Tom-Yum-Goong.
After the release of the live album Loso Concert , Loso broke up, with Sek Loso becoming a solo act.
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